Discipline of athletics
Athletics includes several types: running types, technical types, combined events, walking.
To running disciplines include:
- Sprint (100 m. 200 and 400 m.), Running at medium distances (from 800 to 3000 m.), including running on 3000 m. with obstacles;
- Long distance running (classic distances of 5000 m and 10000 m);
- Barrier running (110 m., 400 m.) and relay race (4х100 м., 4х400 м.).
They all take place on the stadium track.
The technical disciplines are:
- vertical jumping: high jump, pole vault;
- horizontal jumps: long jump, triple jump
- throwing: shot put, discus throw, javelin throw, hammer throw.
By Combined Events include:
- Men`s decathlon (summer season): 100 m running, long jump, shot put, high jump, 400 m. running, 110 m hurdles, discus throw, pole vault, javelin throw, 1500 m. running.
- Heptathlon women (summer season): running 100 m. hurdles, high jump, shot put, 200 m. running, long jump, javelin throw, 800 m. running.
- Heptathlon men (winter season): running 60 m., long jump, running 60 m. hurdles, shot put, high jump, pole vault, running 1000 m.
- Pentathlon women (winter season): 60 m. hurdles, high jump, shot put, long jump, 800 m.
- Sports walking is an Olympic track and field discipline in which, unlike cross-country sports, there must be constant contact of the foot with the ground. In the Olympic program, competitions for men are held outside the stadium, at a distance of 20 km and 50 km, for women at 20 km.
Running kinds athletics stadium combines the following disciplines: sprint (100 m, 200 m and 400 m), running middle distance (800 to 3,000 m), including running 3,000 m steeplechase), long-distance running (classic distance of 5000 m and 10,000 m), hurdles (110 m, 400 m) and relay (4x100m, 4x400m). All of them are on the track of the stadium.
At the start of the athletes take up their positions according to a lot or space occupied in the previous stages of the competition. When the command "at the start of" take place at the starting line or in the stocks (sprint). When the command "attention" preparing for the start and should stop any movement (command only in the sprint). Command "march" gives a shot starter pistol, which is connected to the big competitions electronic timer.
The winner is the athlete who crosses the finish line first. In the case of dispute involved a photo finish, and the first is the one athlete, part of the body which first crossed the finish line.
At major competitions with a large number of participants starts conducted several rounds of screening losers (or in a busy place or at the worst time)
100 m and 800 m are held in the 1-4 range (race-quarterfinals, semi-finals, finals)
from 1500 m to 5000 m in the 1-3 range (race-semi-final-final)
10,000 m - in the 1-2 range (race-ending)
In the final race involved
100 m to 800 m relay - 8 athletes / 8 teams
from 1,500 m to 10,000 m - 12 athletes and more
Results in cross-country disciplines at the stadium are measured with an accuracy of 1/100 sec., In road races up to 1/10 sec.
vertical jumps: high jump, pole vault;
horizontal jumping: long jump, triple jump;
Throwing: shot put, discus, javelin, hammer throw.
Usually held two rounds: Qualifying (qualification) and then the main event. set qualifying standard for qualifying events. If the number of athletes who have completed standard will be less than 12 people, the other participants (up to 12) of the main events of the busy glean their places. The order of performance of athletes at all stages determined by lot. At any stage in the performance of a sequence of three unsuccessful attempts athlete is eliminated from further competition. When you run a successful attempt, the judge raising the white flag, when unsuccessful - red. The winner is the one who reaches the highest result among all the counted attempts in major competitions.
Competition in the vertical jump
At the beginning of the competition is determined by the sequence of increasing the height of the bar for all stages. To overcome the height of each athlete is given three attempts. If an athlete, which is taken high, then again he has three attempts. Athletes have the right to move one or two attempts remaining to the next height.
In case of a tie for the next height and the exhaustion of all of the participants in the winner among several athletes is determined by the following algorithm:
Advantage is given to those who spent less than attempts at height where there was equality.
In case of equality under paragraph 1 advantage for the one who has the fewest failures in the course of the circle (main).
In case of equality under paragraph 2 athletes perform the jump - an extra shot to the next in order of height. If overcome this height did not reveal the winner, the bar is lowered to the agreed amount (2 cm in the high jump and 5 cm in the pole vault). If you took all the athletes height, the bar is raised by this amount if not taken - that falls to this amount, and so until the winner is not determined.
In case of equality of results for other places (second, third and below) is not assigned to a jump-off, and the place is divided between the athletes.
In other technical types
In the qualifying (qualifying) events each athlete is given 3 attempts.
If the major events involving more than 8 athletes, then each given 3 attempts and the best 8 athletes at the end of 3 attempts available (final) three more. If the athlete is 8 or less, provided that each of 6 attempts.
In case of equal results in the best attempts to determine the winner, respectively, the second (third and so on until the sixth) attempt.
Athletic combined events
Athletic combined events - a set of athletic disciplines, where athletes compete in a variety of forms.
Decathlon men (summer season): run 100 meters, long jump, shot put, high jump, 400 m, 110 m hurdles, discus, pole vault, javelin, running 1,500 meters
Heptathlon women (summer season): running 100 meters hurdles, high jump, shot put, running 200 meters, long jump, javelin, running 800 meters.
Heptathlon men (winter season): 60 m run, long jump, running 60 m hurdles, shot put, high jump, pole vault, running 1,000 meters
Pentathlon Women (winter season): running 60 meters hurdles, high jump, shot put, long jump, running 800 m
For each type of athletes get a certain amount of points, which are awarded either on special tables or by empirical formulas. Day event on the official IAAF competitions always carried out in two days. Between species necessarily defined interval to stay. In carrying out certain types of amendments, there are typical of all-round:
in track events are allowed to make one false start (in the usual track events disqualified after the first false start);
in the long jump and throwing party is given only three attempts;
with certain conditions is allowed to use hand timing, if the stadium is not equipped with an automatic.
Walking - Olympic athletics discipline in which, in contrast to the cross-country species, should be in constant contact with the ground legs. In the program of the Olympic competition in men are held outside the stadium, at a distance of 20 km and 50 km, the women's 20 km.
Jogging is an alternation of steps that must be carried out so that the walker always had contact with the ground. In this case, subject to the following two rules:
It is essential that the athlete is constantly in contact with the ground and it does not happen to the human eye visible loss of contact.
Marked forward leg should be fully extended from the first contact with the ground until the passage of the vertical.
Judges may declare warning walkers using the yellow blades to prevent them from violating the rules. On one side of the blade is drawn wavy horizontal line (indicating loss of contact with the surface), on the other - two segments that are connected at an angle of 150 degrees (meaning bent leg).
If the rule is broken and Walker given a warning, the judge sends a red card to the Chief Judge. Athlete is disqualified in the event that three red cards from three different judges on the course were sent to the Chief Judge. In this case, the athlete disqualification report showing the red card.